Direct vs indirect dating archaeology
Central to all of these debates is the question of the possible chronological overlap between the two groups of populations on a continental scale, the duration of this overlap and the nature of their interactions.
In the complex transition that took place in Europe between 50 and 35 ka cal BP, it is essential to precisely recognize the occurrences of the earliest modern humans and latest Neandertals.
However, there is little discussion regarding the anatomical distinction between local Neandertals and the late members of our species at the limit between the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic (MP and UP), which witnessed the replacement of one group by the other.
For this key period, the archaeological and palaeontological records of Europe are by any standard much richer and better studied than those of any other region of the Old World.
In the case of charcoal samples, ABOx treatment has been proposed to replace older ABA treatments ().